Breathlessness references

  • Booth S and Dudgeon D. Editors. Dyspnoea in advanced disease. A guide to clinical management. Oxford University Press, 2006.
  • Reuben DB and Mors V. Dyspnoea in terminally ill patients. Chest, 1986, 89:234-6.
  • Dudgeon DJ et al. Dyspnea in cancer patients: prevalence and associated factors. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 2001, 21 :95-102.
  • Levenson JW et al. The last six months of life for patients with congestive heart failure. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 2000, 45:S101.
  • Joint Formulary Committee (British Medical Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Company). British National Formulary (BNF 62). 2011.
  • Jennings A. Opioids for the palliation of breathlessness in terminal illness. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2001, Issue 3
  • NICE. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults in primary and secondary care. Chapter 1.2 Managing stable COPD.


This Guide is intended for use by healthcare professionals and the expectation is that they will use clinical judgement, medical, and nursing knowledge in applying the general principles and recommendations contained within. They are not meant to replace the many available texts on the subject of palliative care.

Some of the management strategies describe the use of drugs outside their licensed indications. They are, however, established and accepted good practice. Please refer to the current BNF for further guidance.

While WMPCPS takes every care to compile accurate information , we cannot guarantee its correctness and completeness and it is subject to change. We do not accept responsibility for any loss, damage or expense resulting from the use of this information.