Cardiac failure references

  • Twycross R, Wilcock A (Eds). Palliative Care Formulary: Sixth Edition. Ltd 2017.
  • Blinderman CD, Homel P, Billings JA, Portenoy RK, Tennstedt SL. “Symptom distress and quality of life in patients with advanced congestive heart failure”. J Pain Symptom Management. 2008 Jun;35(6):594-603.
  • “Medical Therapy Guidelines for Chronic Heart Failure”, Coventry and Warwickshire Cardiovascular Network, multi-professional working group, version 6, 2007, UHCW e-guidelines 2011 available at
  • Zacharias H, Raw J, Nunn A et al “Is there a role for subcutaneous furosemide in the community and hospice management of end-stage heart failure?” Pall Med. 25 (6) pp65


This Guide is intended for use by healthcare professionals and the expectation is that they will use clinical judgement, medical, and nursing knowledge in applying the general principles and recommendations contained within. They are not meant to replace the many available texts on the subject of palliative care.

Some of the management strategies describe the use of drugs outside their licensed indications. They are, however, established and accepted good practice. Please refer to the current BNF for further guidance.

While WMPCPS takes every care to compile accurate information , we cannot guarantee its correctness and completeness and it is subject to change. We do not accept responsibility for any loss, damage or expense resulting from the use of this information.