Constipation references

  1. Joint Formulary Commitee (British Medical Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Company). British National Formulary (BNF 83). 2022.
  2. Twycross R, Wilcock A (Eds). Palliative Care Formulary: 8th edition 2022
  3. Palliative Care Formulary Quick Clinical Guide: Bowel management in paraplegia and tetraplegia.
  4. Palliative Care Formulary Quick Clinical Guide: Opioid-induced constipation


This Guide is intended for use by healthcare professionals and the expectation is that they will use clinical judgement, medical, and nursing knowledge in applying the general principles and recommendations contained within. They are not meant to replace the many available texts on the subject of palliative care.

Some of the management strategies describe the use of drugs outside their licensed indications. They are, however, established and accepted good practice. Please refer to the current BNF for further guidance.

While WMPCPS takes every care to compile accurate information , we cannot guarantee its correctness and completeness and it is subject to change. We do not accept responsibility for any loss, damage or expense resulting from the use of this information.