Emergencies References

  • Chan KS et al. Palliative medicine in malignant respiratory diseases. P 598. In: Doyle D, Hanks G, Cherny N and Calman (editors) Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. 3rd edition. Oxford University Press, New York. 2005.
  • Bower M and Cox S. Endocrine and metabolic complications of advanced cancer.  P 687-690. In: Doyle D, Hanks G, Cherny and Calman K. (editors) Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. 3rd edition. Oxford University Press, New York. 2005.
  • Major P et al. Zoledronic acid is superior to pamidronate in the treatment of hypercalcaemia of malignancy: a pooled analysis of two controlled clinical trials.  Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2001, 19:558-567.
  • Palliative Care Formulary. Available at: about.medicinescomplete.com/publication/palliative-care-formulary/
  • Lamy O, Bruckhardt P. Hypercalcaemia of malignancy , diagnosis and treatment. Am J Cancer 2002;1(4):277-292.
  • National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Metastaticspinal cord compression:diagnosis and management of patients at risk of or with spinal cord compression. (Clinical guidelines 75) London:NICE,2008. Available from : www.nice.org.uk/CG75
  • Prommer E . Management of bleeding in the terminally ill patient. Haematology 2005;10(3):167-175
  • Perira J, Phan T. Management of bleeding in patients with advanced cancer. Oncologist 2004;9:561-570.


This Guide is intended for use by healthcare professionals and the expectation is that they will use clinical judgement, medical, and nursing knowledge in applying the general principles and recommendations contained within. They are not meant to replace the many available texts on the subject of palliative care.

Some of the management strategies describe the use of drugs outside their licensed indications. They are, however, established and accepted good practice. Please refer to the current BNF for further guidance.

While WMPCPS takes every care to compile accurate information , we cannot guarantee its correctness and completeness and it is subject to change. We do not accept responsibility for any loss, damage or expense resulting from the use of this information.