Renal References

  • Ferro C.J. et al. Management of pain in renal failure. In: Chambers J et al. Editors. Supportive care for the renal patient. 2004. Oxford University Press.
  • Twycross R, Wilcock A (Eds). Palliative Care Formulary: Sixth Edition. Ltd 2017.
  • Joint Formulary Commitee (British Medical Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Company). British National Formulary
  • King S, Forbes K, Hanks GW et al. “A systematic review of the use of opioid medication for those with moderate to severe cancer pain and renal impairment EPCRC opioid guidelines project” Pall Med. 25 (5) pp525-552.
  • Douglas C, Murtagh FEM, Chambers EJ, Howse M, Ellershaw J, Symptom management for the adult patient dying with advanced chronic kidney disease: A review of the literature and development of evidence-based guidelines by a United Kingdom Expert Consensus Group; Palliative Medicine 2009; (23) 103.
  • Russon L and Mooney A. “Palliative and end of life care in advanced renal failure”Clin Med 2010 vol 10 no.3; pp279-281.
  • MacLaran S, Stein A, Bennett-Jones D, Lee R. Supportive Care Guidelines for patients with End Stage Renal Disease. University Hospitals of Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust. 2011 available at
  • “Medical Therapy Guidelines for Chronic Heart Failure”, Coventry and Warwickshire Cardiovascular Network, multi-professional working group, version 6, 2007, UHCW e-guidelines 2011 available at


This Guide is intended for use by healthcare professionals and the expectation is that they will use clinical judgement, medical, and nursing knowledge in applying the general principles and recommendations contained within. They are not meant to replace the many available texts on the subject of palliative care.

Some of the management strategies describe the use of drugs outside their licensed indications. They are, however, established and accepted good practice. Please refer to the current BNF for further guidance.

While WMPCPS takes every care to compile accurate information , we cannot guarantee its correctness and completeness and it is subject to change. We do not accept responsibility for any loss, damage or expense resulting from the use of this information.